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Multicast


Multicast is one of the result of idea of innovative able to assisting many in make-up of service of communications especially in the case of network of Network. In this handing out will a little a few to regarding Multicast this, where which in a word also he represent alliance from nature of had by communications of Unicast and communications of Broadcast. Excess and risk communications of Multicast this earn us know from comparisons which we conduct with methods other communications, where which later lacking of from communications of Multicast this represent new challenge is we which must overcome in the future.



Multicast IP represent IP datagram as within reason other datagram. the differentiating of it is, field of destination address at IP multicast datagram will contain wrongly one IP address which including class of multicast address. By using multicast address as address of is target of, we earn to conduct address at a group of host at the same time with only delivering one just datagram. In this handing out will study bases communications of multipoint, address multicast, needed to extension and condition is delivery and acceptance of multicast datagram, network design of multicast and various aspect which relate to network of multicast like routing multicast.

Traditional application at network of TCP / IP generally only entangling communications between two host. In its growth of consumer of network start to feel requirement to conducting communications entangling more than two side concurrently. some application at computer network start to require communications of multipoint, among others application of chat with, video and audio of broadcast to make radio broadcast and of TV at computer network, and also video application of conference having the character of multimedia, and real-time of interactive.

If evaluated from way of acceptance of datagram by host at network of TCP / IP, there is some ways able to be gone through for the designing of network application having the character of multipoint that is :

1 Unicast

Very classic Point-To-Point communication use IP datagram with mode unicast. At mode of unicast each every datagram have address of is target of unique (property of host certain). communications of Multipoint can be realized by making some relation at the same time at some host, what is each delivering unicast datagram. Coat application will deliver one coffee to each every host becoming communications member this multipoint. This technique very simple for implementation, because its principle only pursuant to ability of multitasking from an host to serve various application from some host at the same time.

But that way the way of this have limitation, especially if amount of host in concerned in communications of multipoint this plenty. Corresponding Host of multipoint have to make communications relation counted host in concerned. Besides improving work load each host in concerned, traffic generated by this communications will be collapsible duplicate counted host in concerned. This matter will generate the problem of usage of Bandwidth. Paying attention picture 1 for this illustration :



















Picture 1 Replication datagram by host in mode of unicast.

From picture, seen that host of is source of performing a relation with A host, host B, Host C (third of located him in network which is equal to host of is source of, namely network 1) and D host (lay in network 2). In this case application the run is application multimedia (video, audio, and conference text), where host of is source of sending information which is same to entire / all host related to him. At host of is source of, happened replication datagram counted amount of host performing a relation with him. Important to remember that content each every this is same datagram precisely only differing just target address (at field of destination address).

Several things able to highlight from mode scenario of multi-unicast this is :

  • This technique is the way of simplest, because do not need changes at network side or module of IP in each host.
  • For the communications of point-to-multipoint, work load of host source will mount proportionally with amount of host related to him.
  • Usage of bandwidth by source host will mount because source host have to deliver is same information counted amount of host related to him, although the hosts reside in at one media shared like Ethernet. In example in of, host of is source of using bandwidth equal to 4 times needed to bandwidth delivering information to an host.

Let us see how the land lies if there are 30 host related to host of is source of. If to deliver peripatetic picture or video live with quality is needing bandwidth equal to 100 kbps, hence generated by bandwidth aggregate is host of is source of to serving 30 host become equal to 3 Mbps. conceiving also if half (15) is host exist in network 2, while network 1 and 2 attributed to channel of WAN which enough quickly like T1 (1,54 Mbps . pertained Channel is the speed high direct collapse effect of traffic which is very mount is the. From breakdown of above, we earn concluding weakness of this method namely :

  • work load of Host will mount.
  • very big Bandwidth need for the communications of multi-point entangling amount big host.

While advantage of this method is to :

  • Representing simplest design for implementation.
  • Do not give burden at host which not such a target of datagram.

2 Broadcast

Way of other to submit is same information to entire host is with method of broadcast. Conception Broadcast at computer network (Specially at network layer in protocol family of TCP / IP) and have been explained by at previous chapter. To delivering information to entire/all host exist in is same network, host enough delivering one addressed datagram to pertinent network address broadcast. Because entire / all host which is on one network have is same address broadcast, hence entire / all host will accept the datagram mentioned as information which must be accepted. Paying attention picture 2 for the illustration of this broadcast :











Picture 2 Delivery of datagram to address broadcast.

In this way, bandwidth generated by video relation of conference in an network do not base on the amount of host in concerned. And so it is with burden of host consignor, because only enough send one datagram able to be accepted by all host at network. However, host which do not want to belong at video of conference this also accept the datagram, because using is same broadcast. This matter will add activity of host which keep off because have to process the datagram before is finally disregarded. Besides, each every network have address broadcast which different each other. If this datagram is continued by router to each every address broadcast of network which in circuit with him, hence mentioned datagram can will spread over to various network which do not wish to accept the datagram.

3 Multicast

Way of third to make communications of multipoint is by joining both excellence is way of above in the case of delivery of datagram, namely :

  • Delivery only delivering one datagram to reach entire / all host representing member of group
  • Datagram only accepted by a number of referred as by certain host of group host.

Way of this referred as by mode of multicast, namely by mentioning one address multicast as address destination of sent datagram. As which have been explained, address multicast do not wear for address an host, is but addressed to address a number of host merging into one group running is same application. Paying attention picture 3 as illustration in delivery of datagram at communications of multipoint.
















Picture 3 Delivery of datagram to an address multicast

At picture above, a number of host conduct communications of multipoint to run an application with. Host in concerned in communications of multipoint this some of is on network 1, some of again at network2. Between network 1 and network 2 connected to through router. One of the host (at picture referred as by host source) delivering datagram to an address multicast (taking example 224.22.33.44). To be more facilitate, this address multicast we is Identification with group 1, caused by possibility of usage of other address multicast as group 2, group 3 , etc. this Host Source only delivering 1 datagram to network. At network 1 using media shared, entire / all host in fact hear this datagram. Special to hosts in concerned and express itself as group 1 (owning address multicast 224.22.33.44 , datagram will be processed furthermore by coat in of IP, whereas to host which keep off (host C), datagram will be disregarded as other datagram which have address of is target of not to it.

At network 1 using media shared, entire / all host in fact hear this datagram. Special to host-host in concerned and express itself as group 1 (owning address multicast 224.22.33.44, datagram will be processed furthermore by coat in of IP, whereas to host which keep off (host C), datagram will be disregarded as other datagram which have address of is target of not to it. Constructively router which have owned ability of multicast, this datagram is distribute to network 2 caused by member of group 1 which reside in at network 2 any is amount of host at network 2 this. Decision to continue or do not continue multicast datagram to other network arranged in an protocol mechanism. With this protocol, multicast router can know at particular network there are member

an group. Its conclusion, usage of mode of multicast in form of communication of multipoint this have excellence some that is :

  • work load of Host light consignor enough, because needn't conduct datagram replication.
  • requirement of bandwidth for the transition of datagram do not base on the amount of host which involve. One or one hundred host in concerned at one network, bandwidth which is need being equal. And so do if at network 2 there are tens of host as member of group, router only require to continue one datagram, just to reach entire / all host.

While weakness (can be read as consequence) this method is to :

  • Needing new standard at protocol of IP and data protocol of link layer (for example Ethernet) to be able to send and accept multicast datagram.
  • Needing new protocol mechanism to arrange allocation of multicast address as certain group, membership of host at one particular group in an network, datagram routing multicast, etc.


By : Willy Wahyudi


Multicast is one of the result of idea of innovative able to assisting many in make-up of service of communications especially in the case of network of Network. In this handing out will a little a few to regarding Multicast this, where which in a word also he represent alliance from nature of had by communications of Unicast and communications of Broadcast. Excess and risk communications of Multicast this earn us know from comparisons which we conduct with methods other communications, where which later lacking of from communications of Multicast this represent new challenge is we which must overcome in the future.



Multicast IP represent IP datagram as within reason other datagram. the differentiating of it is, field of destination address at IP multicast datagram will contain wrongly one IP address which including class of multicast address. By using multicast address as address of is target of, we earn to conduct address at a group of host at the same time with only delivering one just datagram. In this handing out will study bases communications of multipoint, address multicast, needed to extension and condition is delivery and acceptance of multicast datagram, network design of multicast and various aspect which relate to network of multicast like routing multicast.

Traditional application at network of TCP / IP generally only entangling communications between two host. In its growth of consumer of network start to feel requirement to conducting communications entangling more than two side concurrently. some application at computer network start to require communications of multipoint, among others application of chat with, video and audio of broadcast to make radio broadcast and of TV at computer network, and also video application of conference having the character of multimedia, and real-time of interactive.

If evaluated from way of acceptance of datagram by host at network of TCP / IP, there is some ways able to be gone through for the designing of network application having the character of multipoint that is :

1 Unicast

Very classic Point-To-Point communication use IP datagram with mode unicast. At mode of unicast each every datagram have address of is target of unique (property of host certain). communications of Multipoint can be realized by making some relation at the same time at some host, what is each delivering unicast datagram. Coat application will deliver one coffee to each every host becoming communications member this multipoint. This technique very simple for implementation, because its principle only pursuant to ability of multitasking from an host to serve various application from some host at the same time.

But that way the way of this have limitation, especially if amount of host in concerned in communications of multipoint this plenty. Corresponding Host of multipoint have to make communications relation counted host in concerned. Besides improving work load each host in concerned, traffic generated by this communications will be collapsible duplicate counted host in concerned. This matter will generate the problem of usage of Bandwidth. Paying attention picture 1 for this illustration :



















Picture 1 Replication datagram by host in mode of unicast.

From picture, seen that host of is source of performing a relation with A host, host B, Host C (third of located him in network which is equal to host of is source of, namely network 1) and D host (lay in network 2). In this case application the run is application multimedia (video, audio, and conference text), where host of is source of sending information which is same to entire / all host related to him. At host of is source of, happened replication datagram counted amount of host performing a relation with him. Important to remember that content each every this is same datagram precisely only differing just target address (at field of destination address).

Several things able to highlight from mode scenario of multi-unicast this is :

  • This technique is the way of simplest, because do not need changes at network side or module of IP in each host.
  • For the communications of point-to-multipoint, work load of host source will mount proportionally with amount of host related to him.
  • Usage of bandwidth by source host will mount because source host have to deliver is same information counted amount of host related to him, although the hosts reside in at one media shared like Ethernet. In example in of, host of is source of using bandwidth equal to 4 times needed to bandwidth delivering information to an host.

Let us see how the land lies if there are 30 host related to host of is source of. If to deliver peripatetic picture or video live with quality is needing bandwidth equal to 100 kbps, hence generated by bandwidth aggregate is host of is source of to serving 30 host become equal to 3 Mbps. conceiving also if half (15) is host exist in network 2, while network 1 and 2 attributed to channel of WAN which enough quickly like T1 (1,54 Mbps . pertained Channel is the speed high direct collapse effect of traffic which is very mount is the. From breakdown of above, we earn concluding weakness of this method namely :

  • work load of Host will mount.
  • very big Bandwidth need for the communications of multi-point entangling amount big host.

While advantage of this method is to :

  • Representing simplest design for implementation.
  • Do not give burden at host which not such a target of datagram.

2 Broadcast

Way of other to submit is same information to entire host is with method of broadcast. Conception Broadcast at computer network (Specially at network layer in protocol family of TCP / IP) and have been explained by at previous chapter. To delivering information to entire/all host exist in is same network, host enough delivering one addressed datagram to pertinent network address broadcast. Because entire / all host which is on one network have is same address broadcast, hence entire / all host will accept the datagram mentioned as information which must be accepted. Paying attention picture 2 for the illustration of this broadcast :











Picture 2 Delivery of datagram to address broadcast.

In this way, bandwidth generated by video relation of conference in an network do not base on the amount of host in concerned. And so it is with burden of host consignor, because only enough send one datagram able to be accepted by all host at network. However, host which do not want to belong at video of conference this also accept the datagram, because using is same broadcast. This matter will add activity of host which keep off because have to process the datagram before is finally disregarded. Besides, each every network have address broadcast which different each other. If this datagram is continued by router to each every address broadcast of network which in circuit with him, hence mentioned datagram can will spread over to various network which do not wish to accept the datagram.

3 Multicast

Way of third to make communications of multipoint is by joining both excellence is way of above in the case of delivery of datagram, namely :

  • Delivery only delivering one datagram to reach entire / all host representing member of group
  • Datagram only accepted by a number of referred as by certain host of group host.

Way of this referred as by mode of multicast, namely by mentioning one address multicast as address destination of sent datagram. As which have been explained, address multicast do not wear for address an host, is but addressed to address a number of host merging into one group running is same application. Paying attention picture 3 as illustration in delivery of datagram at communications of multipoint.
















Picture 3 Delivery of datagram to an address multicast

At picture above, a number of host conduct communications of multipoint to run an application with. Host in concerned in communications of multipoint this some of is on network 1, some of again at network2. Between network 1 and network 2 connected to through router. One of the host (at picture referred as by host source) delivering datagram to an address multicast (taking example 224.22.33.44). To be more facilitate, this address multicast we is Identification with group 1, caused by possibility of usage of other address multicast as group 2, group 3 , etc. this Host Source only delivering 1 datagram to network. At network 1 using media shared, entire / all host in fact hear this datagram. Special to hosts in concerned and express itself as group 1 (owning address multicast 224.22.33.44 , datagram will be processed furthermore by coat in of IP, whereas to host which keep off (host C), datagram will be disregarded as other datagram which have address of is target of not to it.

At network 1 using media shared, entire / all host in fact hear this datagram. Special to host-host in concerned and express itself as group 1 (owning address multicast 224.22.33.44, datagram will be processed furthermore by coat in of IP, whereas to host which keep off (host C), datagram will be disregarded as other datagram which have address of is target of not to it. Constructively router which have owned ability of multicast, this datagram is distribute to network 2 caused by member of group 1 which reside in at network 2 any is amount of host at network 2 this. Decision to continue or do not continue multicast datagram to other network arranged in an protocol mechanism. With this protocol, multicast router can know at particular network there are member

an group. Its conclusion, usage of mode of multicast in form of communication of multipoint this have excellence some that is :

  • work load of Host light consignor enough, because needn't conduct datagram replication.
  • requirement of bandwidth for the transition of datagram do not base on the amount of host which involve. One or one hundred host in concerned at one network, bandwidth which is need being equal. And so do if at network 2 there are tens of host as member of group, router only require to continue one datagram, just to reach entire / all host.

While weakness (can be read as consequence) this method is to :

  • Needing new standard at protocol of IP and data protocol of link layer (for example Ethernet) to be able to send and accept multicast datagram.
  • Needing new protocol mechanism to arrange allocation of multicast address as certain group, membership of host at one particular group in an network, datagram routing multicast, etc.


By : Willy Wahyudi


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