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Understanding Of Gathering Procedure Data / Mapping Data

Congeniality Algorithm

View concerning computer as a machine which is “bright” is wrong assumption, because computer only an appliance given with refer to command by human being so that can finish problems quickly is, accurate, even repeat without recognizing fatigue and tire of. A group of instruction which representing the solving of that problem is named by program. So that program can be executed by computer, the program have to be written in an language understood by computer. Language computer which is used in writing program named language of programming systematic steps sequence to finish a problem named by algorithm. Become algorithm is logical sequence of decision making for the troubleshooting of. Logical word represent keyword. The steps the have to be logical, this means its truth value have to earn to be determined, correctness or is wrong. Steps which do not correctness can give result of wrong.

Congeniality Programming

Computer only one of the processing so that can be executed by computer, algorithm have to be written in language notation programming is so that named by program. Become program is written in algorithm implementation or materialization is language certain programming so that can be executed by computer. Program written in one of the language of programming and activity making program referred as by programming. People writing program referred as by programmer. Every step in program referred as by instruction or statement. Become, program lapped over of steps instruction. When an instruction executed, hence operations which chime in with the instruction done by computer.

Mechanism Execution of Algorithm by Processing

Marginally computer of lapped over to the four component especial : input apparatus, output apparatus, unit of processing especial and memory unit of processing especial (Central Processing Unit – CPU) is brain” computer, functioning do operations elementary like comparison operation, operate for calculation, operation reading and operation write. Memory is component which functioning or save. Kept in memory is program (containing operations to be done by CPU) and information or data (something that processed by operations). Input apparatus or output (I / O devices) is appliance including program or data into memory, and used by appliance is computer to communicate result its activity. Apparatus input example of is : keyboard, mouse, disk and scanner. Appliance output example of is : monitor, printer, disk and plotter.

Language of Programming

In this time we earn to communicate with computer by using language which we understand. This matter earn us conduct because all expert have succeeded to make dictionary of is so called with language of programming to translate language which we make to become machine language, this dictionary is referred as with Compiler. Process translating of human being language to machine language referred as with compilers.

Elementary Structure Algorithm

Algorithm contain steps of is solving of an problem. The steps can in the form of action sequence, election action and repetition of action. Third of the step type form construction an algorithm. Become, a algorithm can be woke up from 3 elementary structure, that is :

  • Sequence

A sequence consist of one or more instruction. Every instruction done alternately as according to its writing sequence. Instruction sequence determine situation of is end of an algorithm. When its sequence is altered, hence its end result possible also will change.

  • Selection

A instruction done by if fulfilled certain condition.

  • Repetition

One of the excess of computer is its ability to conduct is same work repeatedly without recognizing fatigue. Repetition structure referred as by under layer (loop), and part of repeated algorithm named by under layer body (loop body).


Variable represent an name of implying location computer memory able to be used for save of value, where its contents earn changes. Variable can show as abstraction of location. Result of evaluation of variable is value of that variable. Value from an variable can be altered with statement assignment. A statement assignment consist of a variable on the left and an expression side its right.


Variable having value which in character cannot be altered, value determined at the time of definition.

Type Data

When an declaration variable, hence its type at the same time determined. Type from an variable express :

  • Type value able to be kept in memory location for variable, (limiting values gathering able to have by the variable).
  • Type operation able to be conducted to variable pertinent.

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Turbo Pascal

Operator at is Turbo Pascal there are all kinds of, for example mathematics operator, relationship operator and operator of Boolean. operator mathematical of operator of Boolean still divided again become operator of And, operator of Or, operator of XOR and NOT operator.

Operator Boolean
Operator Boolean useful to operate natural existence “and”, “not”, ”or” and “ or exclusive”. operator for operation this among others is AND ( operation “and”), OR (OPERASI “or”, XOR (operation “or is exclusive”) and NOT (operation “not”).

Operator AND
Operator AND used to compare two element, its result will be real correct if both correctness. When given real correct logic symbol 1 and given by wrong logic of symbol 0.

Operator OR
Operator OR used to compare two element, its result will be real correct if one of the or both correctness. When logic given by real correct of symbol 1 and given by wrong logic of symbol 0.

Operator XOR
Operator XOR used to compare two element, its result will be real correct if real correct one of them. When real correct logic given by of symbol 1 and given by wrong logic of symbol 0.

Operator NOT
Not only entangling a operand.

IF Statement
IF Statement have all kinds of form, that is :
Simple IF Statement
Form simple IF statement shall be as follows :
IF of is condition of THEN statement
At this form of, statement will only be run by if condition valuable of TRUE.

IF ELSE Statement
Form IF ELSE is to following :
IF of is condition of THEN
At this form of if pernyataan1 do not fulfilled hence will run second statement.

Statement of IF have a nest
Statement of IF have a nest is where at IF statement pregnant of IF statement the other. An guidance to comprehending statement of IF ELSE shall be as follows :
1.Correct ELSE IF with couple above him, located in one block
2.If located IF just prior to ELSE located in BEGIN END, IF told is not located in one block which is same.

CASE Statement
CASE Statement represent alternative of IF statement to problem of multiple choicely. At certain problem of CASE more is giving of clarity than IF. But all problem which earn to be handled by CASE can handle by IF.

FOR Statement
FOR Statement used to conduct repetition which is its amount have been known previously. Following will be explained kinds of form of FOR :
FOR TO (referred as also positive restating)
Restating of FOR TO represent restating with numerator from small to big and its for its for is to following :
FOR Variable := first_value TO last_value DO statement
With first_value <= last_value FOR DOWNTO (referred as also negative restating) Restating of FOR DOWNTO represent restating with numerator from big to small and its for shall be as follows : FOR variable := first_value DOWNTO last_value DO statement With first_value => last_value

FOR have a nest
Restating form have a nest this is restating residing in the other restating. deeper restating will be processed beforehand until finished, then restating which more external just done.

While Statement
While Statement ordinary While to conduct repetition which is its amount unknown in front of or after digit do not equal to 1 or – 1, so that statement will to continuing during valuable condition of True form While statement :
WHILE condition DO statement

Repeat...Until Statement
Repeat...Until used to repeat (repeat statement) until of is condition of selected in Until do not fulfilled. Equation with while is wearied to handle repetition which is its not sure amount.

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Design And Scheme Software Of Language Programming

Programming Procedural

Learn program unlike learning language programming. Learn its meaning program get wise to strategy troubleshooting, resolving systematic way and methodologies problem of, then writing down it in notation agreed on with. Learning program have the character of the understanding of problem, and analysis of synthesis. Learn language programming of its meaning learn wearing language software of programming certain, standard form, syntax order, and procedure exploit specific instruction in each language software of programming certain.

Procedural according to Indonesian dictionary mean phases activity to finish an step method or activity for the shake of step by exact in solving an problem. Algorithm is steps sequence of is solving of problem, meaning algorithm of is including process of procedural. At programming of procedural, program differentiated by between shares data with part of instruction. Part of instruction consist of sequence (instruction sequence) to be executed one per one successively. Groove execution of instruction can change if (there are) any tapping of conditional. On file data in manipulation memory by instruction by sorting (procedural), matter this is which is named by programming of procedural. Language of programming high level like Cobol, Basic, Pascal, C Language and of Fortran included in language category programming of procedural.

Design and Device of Software Pascal
Writing of algorithm notation of programming do not know form standard, so that programmer earn freely write notation its algorithm, however algorithm notation condition is logical, that is easy to implementation to language software of programming certain. It is better programmer plan beforehand language software of programming to wear so that at the time of making algorithm notation of programming direct have correspondent with standard form of programming listing of software wearied.
This module will study about device and design at language software of programming high level of Pascal, more special again software the used is Turbo Pascal 7.0 production company of Borland Inc. written to be Notation Algorithm to be accommodated with syntax from is Turbo Pascal so that is easier implementation become program. Algorithm notation which relate to is Turbo Pascal have certain order, accommodating to form of listing Pascal Language. Order writing of algorithm consist of three shares, that is as following :
1.Title program (header)
2.Declaration (dictionary)
Comment is the part of algorithm notation which will not execute by program, comment condition is to reside in between bog parenthesis, example : { comment }. Comment can be placed wherever in algorithm notation because function especial of comment is to water down or explain process a algorithm notation. Program title (header) is part of algorithm text used as by is place define the name of program. Name of program wearied may not is equal to name of procedure, function and there may not be any dissociation use space. Order writing of program title algorithm is :
Program of Name_Program;
Usage of under line sign (_) at name of program is not an compulsion, just for changing space, or can is also written Nameprogram. Sign Semicolon (;) terminating every statement algorithm, this correspond to Pascal syntax which using semicolon sign in each is final instruction.
At part of declaration recognized by some data type provided by Pascal, for example integer, byte, word, real, single, double, char, and string of boolean. Part of or algorithm of description reside in after part of declaration. Part of algorithm is part of containing core of instructions or denominating of action which have been defined. Text component algorithm in programming of procedural can in the form of instruction, sequence, case analysis or restating (loop). Each algorithm step read the from the top of downwards because executing program also walk the from the top of downwards so that writing sequence algorithm notation determine step sequence execute program.

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Algorithm and of Programming

Software or Program
Software is often referred as also program is an result execute (instruction) able to walk at computer, functioning truly, ready to serve all possibility input, data manipulation and instruction and also ability to conduct an specific function. Each software unlike is other, having separate marking and can be used to do special function. Type example of software for example language software programming, databases application software (database), software application of design web, graphical application software, application software multimedia and others.

Software made by programmer which can individual and also team. Making of software relate to software developer, that is a software able to be used to developing program. Considering to the number of type of software existing hence developer software also all kinds of its type, election type of software developer what will be used to developing a program depended from software like what which is wanted by programmer and how device and design its program. Design and program device made to facilitate programmer do steps in programming because in program device have been decanted functions any kind of able to be conducted, process sequence, data manipulation and processing. Making of program device have to relate at algorithm method of programming so that moment device implementation become or program of software becoming is easier.

Definition Algorithm
Algorithm is logical steps sequence is solving of problem compiled systematically and is logical. Logical is matter which is fundamental in algorithm, logical meaning is sensible or can be accepted by mind and also can be determined by correctness or is wrong of him. Algorithm not merely term in the world of computer, but all process troubleshooting with systematic steps representing algorithm, good that the problem of everyday life and or other problem which do not relate to computer world. algorithm of programming is logical steps sequence to developing a compiled program systematically. Steps in developing a interconnected program with wanted by program device and design is programmer. Making of software based on algorithm method of programming identified with existence of problem, assess early problem, process and result of which is wanted.

Usage of algorithm in programming give amenity to programmer in the case of algorithm notation implementation becoming software use certain developer software, and also can yield good software. Marking of software good is :
  • Good device (systematic and methodological)
  • Can execute truly by computer
  • Function truly according to device
  • Can serve all possibility of input
  • interesting Appearance
  • User friendly
  • Easy to in development and conservancy

Software is often referred as also program is an result execute able to be run by at computer, functioning truly, ready to serve all possibility of input, data manipulation and instruction and also abilities to conducting an specific function. Software made by programmer which can be individual and also team. Making of software relate to developer software, that is a software able to be used to develop program. Algorithm is logical steps sequence is solving of problem compiled systematically and is logical. Algorithm of programming is logical steps sequence to develop a compiled program systematically. Steps in developing a program relate to and design
wanted by program device is programmer. Each process done at each step represent a notation algorithm. This algorithm notations have to be done successively and algorithm notation also have to have the character of logical so that can implementation use certain developer software.

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Diagnosing And Fixing Motherboard Faults

When a PC fails or exhibits intermittent faults, the first resort is often to send for a specialist engineer. Yet there is a lot that PC support staff with the right level of competence and understanding can do to filter out easily fixed problems, leaving only those that absolutely require the services of a professional repair-shop. Failure of a socket part is one thing, but replacing a surface mounted component normally demands specialist equipment.

When you’re diagnosing faults, it is important to keep a record of what you have done. If nothing else, this will help a specialist later on if you are not able to fix the system yourself. In addition, it is vital to know what was happening when the problem occurred, particularly with intermittent faults. As long as the PC is still in its case, static safety shouldn’t be a problem, but ideally you should ground yourself with a static strap attached to the wrist and earthed to the workbench (which itself should be earthed). Failure to take the necessary precautions can cause intermittent faults and / or damage components on the motherboard.

Starting Work
Does the PC do anything at all or is it dead? If you have a dead PC, the first thing to check is obviously the power supply. Is the fan running? If it is, is the power connection to the motherboard OK ? Most PSU connect to he motherboard with two connectors, with the black cables meeting in the middle. It’s a good idea to keep a spare power supply handy, as it’s not unusual for them to burn out completely or for the fan to fail. Removing the case from a power supply normally involves removing four small screws to expose the circuit board. There’s nothing on the board that you can fix, but it’s worth looking at the board in order to check for obvious signs of damage such as a blown fuse or some grunge leaking from the large cylindrical capacitors. Never replace a blown fuse on a power supply. If the fuse blows, it has probably blown for a good reason (such as one of the PSU components burning out). Replacing the fuse is dangerous, and can also damage components on the PC’s motherboard. Fit a new power supply instead – they don’t cost more than around US$30. Assuming the power supply checks out, try a different monitor. Maybe the PC is working fine, but the monitor is broken. If this turns out to be the case, you should not attempt to fix the monitor yourself. Taking the case off a monitor exposes you to voltages that can kill, and it’s best left to a specialist who knows which areas are safe to touch. Remember that, because of the high capacitance of a monitor, those lethal voltages can exist even if the monitor has been turned off for many hours. The next step is to remove all the expansion cards and disconnect the hard and floppy drives to see if they are holding the power rails down. (With EISA systems, make a note of which boards were in which slots to avoid the need to rebuild the system configuration later.) If the system starts to boot without the drives attached, re-attach them one by one until it no longer boots, to see which is the problem. Known-good cables should also be tried with the drives, while the reset and other switches should be disconnected, in case they are causing problems. Leave the speaker connected - those beeps might be your only clue as to where the fault lies.

Physical Checks
A visual check of the motherboard should look for discolored components and other obvious signs of overheating. Socket components should be carefully pressed down to make sure they are securely seated - this is particularly important if the system has failed after being moved. Ensure too that they do not have bent legs : these can cause intermittent failures if they make contact to begin with but go open circuit as the system warms up. After this, the processor and memory can be swapped for known-good equivalents, ensuring that the processor clock speed jumpers are correctly set and that the memory is the correct speed and compatible with the board. Wrongly setting the BIOS jumpers can in some case swipe a Flash EPROM, so the BIOS should be verified by swapping it with a known-good chip. If the BIOS is OK, the system will normally beep when it completes its power-on self test (POST). Most systems also have a range of other recognizable beep codes to report certain faults. A list of these should be supplied in the motherboard or system manual and is essential for fault finding. A high-impedance oscilloscope can be used to check that the clock is working, by probing onto the underside of the crystal or the capacitors around it. It should typically be producing a frequency in the region of 14MHz which is then multiplied up by other circuitry to the PC’s bus frequency. If the board fails to beep at all, and the processor and BIOS have been replaced and verified, it may mean that the processor cannot access the BIOS. In this case, a major fault such as a broken PCB track or a loose SMT component should be suspected, and the board will need specialist analysis and repair.

Subsystem Faults
If the POST beep is present and the disk access light is active but nothing appears on the screen, a video fault is possible. (Incidentally, if the floppy disk light ever remains permanently active after you’ve put the machine back together, this is a sure sign that you’ve plugged in the floppy drive connector the wrong way round.) If the screen is indeed blank, the on-board video should be disabled and a known-good video card installed instead. (Again, keep a known-good video card in your spares box. They don’t cost more than $50, and it saves having to take someone else’s machine apart to borrow their video card.) The video subsystem comes in two parts: the controller generates the digital image, and the DAC (digital to analogue converter) turns this into the analogue signal understood by the monitor. If there are sync signals present but no output, the DAC may have failed. If there is no sync signal a controller problem is more likely. A blown DAC will get hot, but testing for this needs caution as failed chips can be hot enough to burn flesh. In any case, some modern video chip sets combine the DAC and controller, making faultfinding harder. A DPMS power-managed monitor could be useful as it will usually indicate, either with an on-screen message or by varying the color or blink pattern of the power LED, whether it is receiving sync signals or not.

Keyboard Fuse
A common problem is the keyboard fuse, which often blows if a keyboard is plugged in or removed when the PC is running. The keyboard fuse is usually a sub miniature surface-mounted component that is not immediately recognizable as such. Look for something labeled F1 or F2 and located near the keyboard connector (on the motherboard, not in the PC). The best way to test it is with a millimeter or with a spare keyboard - if the keyboard lights flash as the system powers on, the fuse is OK. As always, don’t replace the fuse unless you have a pretty good idea of why it blew in the first place. The whole idea of the fuse blowing is to protect the other components. Replacing it will expose the rest of the motherboard to the same fault again, unless you fix it first (eg, by replacing the keyboard or remembering not to plug it in while the PC is running).

Send A Postcard
A useful diagnostic tool is a POST card, though good versions are hard to come by and you should be wary of paying too much for one that you have not had a chance to evaluate. PCs send their POST results out on a particular I/O port - most use port 80, while Compaq’s may use port 84 and IBM’s use 300. The POST card, which plugs into the ISA bus, decodes these signals and displays them either on a set of Leeds or a seven-segment numeric display. A list of POST codes is needed, and can be used to identify the results being produced by the self-test routine. If the POST card shows FF, an oscilloscope can be used to see if the processor is accessing the BIOS, looking for clock signals, the address and data strobes on the CPU, and for resets.

No Clock
Real-time clock (RTC) failure can be fixed fairly simply, by replacing the battery or, if it is a combined clock / battery unit, by replacing the whole module. However, if this would require soldering, it should not be attempted : motherboards contain heavy ground planes that require a lot of heat to be applied very quickly to avoid damage. If this heat is applied too slowly, the longer exposure to it can burn the board. It is also important to replace the battery with the correct type. Some PC use non-rechargeable Lithium cells and others rechargeable NiCad’s, and if the former is substituted for the latter an explosion could result. Some clock modules allow you to simply connect a standard household battery or two (eg, as used in a Walkman) to override the exhausted built-in battery. However, you normally need to set a jumper before doing this. If you are in any doubt, don’t do it.

Intermittent Faults
Intermittent faults are the hardest to detect. If the system runs for a while but then halts, check the CPU fan. If this has failed the CPU will overheat until its thermal cut-out shuts it down. Although this cut-out protects the chip to some extent, continued attempts to use the system in this state may cause thermal damage to the processor chip. Unfortunately, CPU fans seem to burn out with alarming regularity. Be sure to keep one or two in your spares box, along with some of that special heat-conducting glue to fix them to the CPU chip itself. Faulty joints or components can also make the system hang as it warms up and causes them to expand and go open-circuit, but testing for this requires a temperature chamber and is a specialist job. It is possible to diagnose some faults of this kind by bending the board but this is highly inadvisable as it can cause more problems by breaking components, joints and tracks. For a long life the board should be properly supported and kept well cooled. A motherboard that boots and then hangs may have cache problems, in which case the level 1 and 2 cache should be disabled in the BIOS. Cache problems show more often when booting from the floppy drive. If the problem goes away, the caches can then be re-enabled one at a time to see where the fault lies. Alternatively, if the system will not boot from floppy, this can be a sign of component failure or a dry joint on the motherboard. If the cache is OK, them an memory needs to be tested with diagnostic software, as a memory parity error will cause the system to hang, usually with a warning message. You also need to check that the memory fitted matches the specifications laid down by the board or system manufacturer and is compatible. Adding a wait state in the CMOS set-up may alleviate a memory timing problem. Check also whether the motherboard supports or requires parity memory, and whether this is indeed fitted. Once the base system is working, the expansion cards can be put back one at a time. However, before doing this the test and diagnosis software should be run to determine the free I/O space and resources on the PC. These programs will not find problems such as timing errors but can prove base system functionality. Loop back connectors for the serial and parallel ports are another essential diagnostic tool needed here. If built-in ports or controllers are faulty it may be possible to disable them and fit a card instead

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Making Album Photograph With Dreamweaver MX

Album photograph usually met many at personal sites and organizational sites. Album photo contain corps photograph or good picture of picture in format .jpg and .gif. The steps making album photograph with dreamweaver MX is :

1. Prepare picture or photo which will be presented, and include into one folder / directory
2. Open Dreamweaver MX, and make new file by choosing File menu > New
3. Choose menu of Commands > Create Web Photo of Album
4. Will come up input form entitling Create Web Photo Album, then complete content all input
Boldness :
  • Photo Album of Title filled with our photo album title Subheading Info filled with brief boldness regarding photo album
  • Source Images Folder, depress knob of Browse and searching of folder our place our photo save (step 1)
  • Destination Folder, depress Browse and point at folder / directory for save photograph our album
  • Thumbnail Size, choose size measure of thumbnail
  • Columns, fill with amount of presented photo every line
Depress knob O.K. after all form loaded as according to desire of us
5. Afterward, automatically Dreamweaver will open Program of Fireworks MX which will make thumbnail to every our picture or photo
6. If all photo have been made its his hence will be presented by message of Album of created. Depress O.K. and photo album we have
7. Now see in folder / our place directory of mentioned save file have been formed by some and file of folder new. File searching of index.htm and open in Internet Explorer

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IP Counter

To noting visitor by using Address IP. As usual for first step which we make is to make name database at Mysql which we later will us as storage media. Table Scrip at database shall be as follows.

CREATE TABLE `ipcounter` (

`id` int(21) NOT NULL auto_increment,

`ip` varchar(250) default NULL,

`hits` int(250) NOT NULL default '0',



After success making IP counter, step hereinafter is to make connection database used to connect web with database, so that application which we make can update finely. Following is PHP connection scrip with Mysql. (keep by the name of config.php)

$hostname = “hostname”;

$username = “username”;

$password = “password”;

$database = “name database”;

$connect = mysql_connect ($hostname, $username, $password) or die

(“connection database wrong”);

mysql_select_db ($database, $connect) or die (“database not found”);


After making connection scrip with database of Mysql do step here in after is making index page. This page is we us as appearance of IP and visit from the visitor. For example your IP is 127.0.01 have visited this site web counted 17 times. Following scrip used to present data of IP and visit amount. (keep by the name of index.php)

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Design Database

Process of design database :

  • Analysis conditions

Comprehending and knowing data which must be kept in database, application what have to be woke up by above him, type operate for what will be used

  • Conceptual design data base

    • collected information at phase analyze conditions used to develop high level data description

    • This step is often conducted by using model of E-R

    • Its Target is to create simple picture about data which too like with idea of consumer / user

  • Design data base logic

    • Change scheme of E-R become database scheme of relational

    • Its target is to obtain conceptual scheme at data model of relational which is often named by logic scheme

  • Repair of scheme

Analysis a group of relationship in database scheme of relational to identify problems which emerge and improve it

  • Design database physical

This step include making of index at some tables, grouping some tables or entangle design repeat which is substantial to database scheme some part

  • Design application and security

All project of software entangling a DBMS have to consider application aspect which beyond database

Entity-Relationship (E-R)

  • Data model of Entity-Relationship (E-R) consist of a group of objects, so called with relation and entity that happened among objects

  • Data model of E-R divided to become three elementary concept, that is : gathering of entity, gathering of relationship, and attribute

Entity and gathering of entity set

  • An entity represent an individual or elementary object which deputize its something tangible of him and can be differentiated from other objects

  • An entity have a group of nature of and assess from some nature of the is unique able to identify the entity

Gathering of entity

  • A group of entity having is same type and stay in is same scope form an gathering of entity

  • For example, a group of one who become student at one particular college, can be defined as gathering of entity student. So that can be said that by entity show at individual an object, while gathering of entity show at clump of individual

  • An entity have attribute. Attribute represent the nature of or property had by entity. This attribute differentiate between entity which is one with other entity

  • Relationship show the existence of relation among a number of entity coming from a number of gathering of entity different

Cardinality Relationship

Cardinality represent optimum of entity, where the entity can relation with entity at gathering of entity other

Type of cardinality relationship

  • One to One

An entity in gathering of entity A attributed to at most one entity in B entity in gathering and entity in gathering of entity B attributed to at most one entity in gathering of entity A

  • One to Many

An entity in gathering of entity A attributed to more than one entity in gathering of entity B, and entity in gathering of entity B can only be attributed to at most one entity in gathering of entity A

  • Many to One

An entity in gathering of entity A attributed to at most one entity in gathering of entity B, and entity in gathering of entity B can be attributed to more than one entity in gathering of entity A

  • Many to Many

An entity in gathering of entity A can be attributed to more than one entity in gathering of entity B, and entity in gathering of entity B can be attributed to more than one entity in gathering of entity A


  • Key represent one or alliance from some attribute able to differentiate all data line uniquely

  • If an attribute become key, hence there may not be any two or more data line of equal value

Type of key :

  • Super Key

  • Candidate Key

  • Primary Key

Diagram Entity-Relationship (Diagram E-R)

An database, can be depicted graph with an diagram of E-R

Notation of E-R :

  • Square of length, depicting gathering of entity

  • Elliptical, depicting attributes (functioning attribute as key highlighted)

  • Ramble, depicting gathering of relationship

  • Line, depicting attribute relation to gathering and entity of entity to gathering of relationship

  • Relationship cardinality can be depicted with many line him branch or with usage of number, 1 for relationship one, n for relationship many

Step making of Diagram E-R

  • Identifying and specifying entire / all gathering of entity to involve

  • Determining attributes of key from each gathering of entity

  • Identifying and specifying entire / all relationship gathering among gathering of entity existing along with key foreign

  • Determining degree of cardinality to each relationship gathering

  • Equipping gathering of entity relationship gathering and with attribute of descriptive (non key)

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System Database

Database is defined as a group of data which is interaction, kept with minimum of redundancy to serve many application in an optimal fashion.

Redundancy :

  • depository of is same data by is recurring.

  • if data able to be obtained from separate kept other data.

  • Redundancy cause the problem of when renewing (update data), extravagant depository room, and can generate its consistence do not data.

Database management system represent an software which consist of a group of program to manage and look after data in a structure used by many application, free (independence) to storage media and method access.

Benefit of database management system :

  • Data independence

  • Efficient data access

  • Integrity and data security

  • Data administration

  • Access congruent and

    of crash recovery

  • Time development of application lessened

Database management system consist of four component :

  • Data

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • User


Data to an data bases have characteristic integrated and usage with. At application which is big relative of data tend to be used by system of multi-user, while at application of relative small of data tend to be used by system of single-user.

system of Multi-User is an conducive system many consumer (user) can access data bases concurrently (concurrent). System of Single-User is an system with at most one consumer can access data bases at any given time.


Consist of especial equipments in the form of depository assist and equipments of Input / output and processor of memory especial, and also equipments of supporter (for example for the equipments of network or equipments of other communications).


Software for the system of data bases referred as by SMBD, representing coat among data bases physically with user. Especial function of SMBD is to become shield to consumer of hardware detail, so that consumer with knowledge of minimum regarding hardware can use databases system easily.


  • Application programming, that is in charge of write application program using databases.

  • Final consumer, that is consumer which is have interaction to with data bases system on-lonely pass terminal or workstation. Interface used many to water down interaction. Medium for certain consumer use facility update data by interactive with language of query, because more supple in giving function which do not be provided by interface. Language of query is standard language used to define and data manipulation in databases.

  • Administrator database (Database of Administrator), that is someone compiling policy decision and strategy concerning data, and provide requirement of technique support for the implementation of selected decision. Bases data Administrator hold responsible to usage of rights access to data bases, coordinated and watch usage of data bases, and to provide the source of software and hardware according to requirement. Thereby data bases administrator accountable for all system control at technique level.

Data model :

  • Flat-File

  • Hierarchy

  • Network

  • Relational

  • Object Oriented (OO)

  • Object Relational (OR)

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